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Introduction to the subject: Micro and Macro Economics, Relationship between Science, Engineering, Technology and Economic Development. Production Possibility Curve, Nature of Economic Laws.
Time Value of Money: concepts and application. Capital budgeting; Traditional and modern methods, Payback period method, IRR, ARR, NPV, PI (with the help of case studies)
Meaning of Demand. Law of Demand, Elasticity of Demand; meaning, factors effecting it and its practical application and importance. Demand forecasting (a brief explanation)
Meaning of Production and factors of production, Law of variable proportions and returns to scale. Internal and external economies and diseconomies of scale. Concepts of cost of production, different types of costs; accounting cost, sunk cost, marginal cost, Opportunity cost. Break even analysis, Make or Buy decision (case study). Relevance of Depreciation towards industry.
Meaning of market, types Oligopoly. (main features). determination of market, perfect competition, Monopoly, Monopolistic, Supply and law of supply, Role of demand and supply in price
Indian Economy, nature and characteristics. Basic concepts; fiscal and monetary policy, LPG, Inflation, Sensex, GATT, WTO and IMF. Difference between Central bank and Commercial banks
Unit-1 : Fundamentals of Digital Techniques : Digital signal, logic gates: AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, EX-OR, EX-NOR, Boolean algebra. Review of Number systems. Binary codes: BCD, Excess-3, Gray, EBCDIC, ASCII, Error detection and correction codes.
Unit-2: Combinational Design Using Gates: Design using gates, Karnaugh map and Quine Mcluskey methods of simplification.
Unit-3: Combinational Design Using MSI Devices: Multiplexers and Demultiplexers and their use as logic elements, Decoders, Adders / Subtractors, BCD arithmetic circuits, Encoders, Decoders / Drivers for display devices.
Unit-4 : Sequential Circuits : Flip Flops : S-R, J-K, T, D, master-slave, edge triggered, shift registers, sequence generators, Counters, Asynchronous and Synchronous Ring counters and Johnson Counter, Design of Synchronous and Asynchronous sequential circuits.
Unit-5: General System Architecture: Store program control concept, Flynn’s classification of computers (SISD, MISD, MIMD): Multilevel viewpoint of a machine: digital logic, micro architecture, ISA, operating systems, high level language; structured organization; CPU, caches, main memory, secondary memory units & I/O; Performance metrics; MIPS, MFLOPS.
Unit-6: Instruction Set Architecture: Instruction set based classification of processors (RISC, CISC and their comparison); addressing modes: register, immediate, direct, indirect, indexed; Operations in the instruction set; Arithmetic and Logical, Data Transfer, Control Flow; Instruction set formats (fixed, variable, hybrid); Language of the machine: 8086; simulation using MSAM.
Unit-7: Basic non pipelined CPU Architecture: CPU Architecture types (accumulator, register, stack, memory/register) detailed data path of a typical register based CPU, Fetch-Decode-Execute cycle ( typically 3 to 5 stage); microinstruction sequencing, implementation of control unit, Enhancing performance with pipelining.
Unit-8: Memory Hierarchy & I/O Techniques: The need for a memory hierarchy (Locality of reference principle, Memory hierarchy in practice: Cache, main memory and secondary memory, Memory parameters: access cycle time, cost per bit): Main memory (Semiconductor RAM & ROM organization, memory expansion, Static & dynamic memory types); Cache memory (Associative & direct mapped cache organizations)
Unit-1: Communication system components: Introduction to Communication: Definition & means of communications; Digital and analog signals: sign waves, square waves; Properties of signals: amplitude, frequency, phase; Theoretical basis for data communication: Fourier analysis: Fourier series and Fourier Transform (property, ESD, PSD and Raleigh) effect of limited bandwidth on digital signal.
Unit-2: Data Transmission System: Physical connections: modulation, amplitude-, frequency-, phase- modulation; Data encoding: binary encoding (NRZ), Manchester encoding, differential Manchester encoding.
Transmission Media: Twisted pair-, co-axial, fiber optic-cables, wireless media Transmission impairments: attenuation, limited bandwidth of the channels, delay distortion, noise, and data rate of the channels (Nyquist theorem, Shannon limit). Physical layer interfaces: RS 232, X.21
Unit-3: Standards in data communications: Communication modes: simplex, half duplex, full duplex; Transmission modes: serial, parallel-transmission; Synchronizations: Asynchronous, synchronous-transmission; Type of services: connection oriented, connectionless-services; Flow control: unrestricted simplex protocol, simplex stop- and -wait protocol, sliding window protocol; Switching systems: circuit switching; picket switching: data gram , virtual circuits, permanent virtual circuits. Telephone Systems: PSTN, ISDN, asynchronous digital subscriber line. Multiplexing: frequency division, time, wave division multiplexing
Unit-4: Security in data communications: Transmission errors: feedback, forward-error control approaches; Error detection; Parity check, block sum check, frame check sequences; Error correction: hamming codes, cyclic redundancy check; Data encryption: secret key cryptography, public key cryptography; Data compression: run length encoding, Huffman encoding.
Unit-1: Set Theory: Introduction to set theory, Set operations, Algebra of sets, Finite and Infinite sets, Classes of sets, Power Sets, Multi sets, Cartesian Product, Representation of relations, Types of relation, Equivalence relations and partitions , Partial ordering relations and lattices.
Unit-2: Propositional Calculus: Basic operations: AND (^), OR (v), NOT (~), Implication and bi-implication, Truth value of a compound statement, propositions, tautologies, contradictions, Universal and Existential quantifiers, methods of proof, Mathematical Induction, Propositional logic, Hypothesis and Inference, CNF, DNF, PCNF, PDNF.
Unit–3: Techniques of Counting: Permutations with and without repetition, Combination.
Unit-4: Recursion And Recurrence Relation: Linear recurrence relation with constant coefficients, Homogeneous solutions, Particular solutions, Total solution of a recurrence relation using generating functions.
Unit-5: Algebric Structures: Definition and examples of a monoid, Semigroup, Groups and rings, Homomorphism, Isomorphism and Automorphism, Subgroups and Normal subgroups, Cyclic groups, Integral domain and fields, Cosets, Lagrange’s theorem
Unit-6: Graphs And Trees: Introduction to graphs, Directed and Undirected graphs, Homomorphic and Isomorphic graphs, Subgraphs, Cut points and Bridges, Multigraph and Weighted graph, Paths and circuits, Shortest path in weighted graphs, Eurelian path and circuits, Hamilton paths and circuits, Planar graphs, Euler’s formula, Trees, Spanning trees, Binary trees and its traversals, Coloring graph problem, bipartite graphs, Travelling salesman problem,
Overview of ‘C’: Introduction , Flow of Control, Input output functions, Arrays and Structures, Functions
Data structures and Algorithms: an overview: concept of data structure, choice of right data structures, types of data structures, basic terminology Algorithms, how to design and develop an algorithm: stepwise refinement, use of accumulators and counters; algorithm analysis, complexity of algorithms Big-oh notation.
Arrays: Searching Sorting: Introduction, One Dimensional Arrays, Operations Defined: traversal, selection, searching, insertion, deletion, and sorting. Multidimensional arrays, address calculation of a location in arrays.
Searching: Linear search, Recursive and Non recursive binary Search.
Sorting: Selection sort, Bubble sort, Insertion sort, Merge sort, Quick sort, Shell sort, Heap sort
Stacks and queues: Stacks, array representation of stack, Applications of stacks. Queues, Circular queues, array representation of Queues, Deque, priority queues, Applications of Queues.
Section-B Pointers and Linked Lists;
Pointers: Pointer variables, Pointer and arrays, array of pointers, pointers and structures, Dynamic allocation.
Linked Lists: Concept of a linked list,. Circular linked list, doubly linked list, operations on linked lists. Concepts of header linked lists. Applications of linked lists, linked stacks, linked Queues.
Section-C Trees and Graphs
Trees: Introduction to trees, binary trees, representation and traversal of trees, operations on binary trees, types of binary trees, threaded binary trees, B Trees, Application of trees.
Graphs: Introduction, terminology, ‘set, linked and matrix’ representation, Graph traversal techniques: BFS, DFS, operations on graphs, Minimum spanning trees, Applications of graphs.
Section-D File Handling and Advanced data Structure
Introduction to file handling, Data and Information, File concepts, File organization, files and streams, working with files. AVL trees, Sets, list representation of sets, applications of sets, skip lists
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